Assyria

One of the great empires of the ancient world, occupying a fertile area east of the River Tigris, corresponding to modern northern Iraq. In the city of Nineveh pottery which has been discovered is proof of habitation in the period 5000–3000 BCE, but its main importance for biblical history lay in the three centuries from about 900 BCE when its well-trained and equipped army, with chariots and infantry, terrified neighbouring countries (Jer. 1:13). However, the northern kingdom was temporarily benefited by Assyria when it defeated Israel's Aramaean oppressors (2 Kgs. 13:5). Nevertheless Shalmaneser Ⅲ, king of Assyria 858–824 BCE, records on the Black Obelisk, found in 1846 at Calah on the River Tigris and now in the British Museum in London, that he received gifts from Jehu, king of Israel, in 841 BCE. Under Tiglath-Pileser Ⅲ (744–727 BCE) a period of aggressive expansion brought vast areas under Assyrian control and local neighbours were subject to it; many of the inhabitants were deported. But Menahem, king of Israel, secured immunity by forcing all the well-to-do inhabitants to surrender fifty shekels each (the current price of a slave) as tribute to Assyria (2 Kgs. 15:20). The enlarged Assyrian cities were magnificently beautiful and in them the arts flourished.
When Hoshea failed to send his annual tribute, Shalmaneser Ⅴ (727–722 BCE) besieged Samaria and deported 27,000 of its residents; he repopulated it with a variety of foreigners who brought their own religion, which was later amalgamated with the worship of Yahweh (2 Kgs. 17:28). According to this slander generated by local Jewish enmity, the syncretism initiated the impure Samaritan [[➝ Samaritans]] religion. But this is a quite misleading view of Samaritanism.
Judah long remained loyal to Assyria, until finally it joined the coalition against Sennacherib (705–681 BCE), but during the siege of Jerusalem the Assyrians unexpectedly withdrew. In the late 7th cent. Assyria collapsed and Medes and Chaldeans expelled Assyrians from Babylonia. Nineveh was captured in 612 BCE (cf. Nahum 3:7). This gave a measure of space to Judah for Josiah's reforms.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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  • Assyria — • Includes geographical and historical information Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Assyria     Assyria     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Assyria — Middle English, from L. Assyria, from Gk. Assyria, short for Assyria ge the Assyrian land, from fem. of Assyrios pertaining to Assyria, from Akkad. Ashshur, name of the chief city of the kingdom and also of a god, probably from Assyrian sar… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Assyria TV — (Assyrie TV), anciennement connu sous le nom The Hujada TV project ou Hujåda TV project[1], est une chaîne de télévision assyrienne ayant pour vocation la diffusion de programmes via web TV. Les studios d Assyria TV sont basés à Stockholm, en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Assyria — [ə sir′ē ə] ancient empire in SW Asia in the region of the upper Tigris River: at its height (7th cent. B.C. ), it extended from the head of the Persian Gulf to Egypt and Asia Minor: original cap. Ashur; later cap. Nineveh …   English World dictionary

  • ASSYRIA — I. ASSYRIA Arbor, quae et Medica, et Περσικὴ μηλέα, eadem cum Cittea plerisque Veterum. Sed Virgilius in illa describenda, ingentem arborem eam nobis tradit, quod Aurantiae potius, quam citro, convenit. Nam citrum non alte attollitur, Ipsa ingens …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • ASSYRIA —    The heartland of Assyria lies in the northern area of presentday Iraq, alongside the river Tigris, from the Anatolian foothills to the range of the Jebel Hamrin. Other important waterways to the east are the Upper and the Lower Zab, which run… …   Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia

  • Assyria —    A region of ancient Mesopotamia that became the heartland of a series of Assyrian empires. Assyria was located in the region now occupied by northern Iraq, near the Tigris River. It stretched northward toward the foothills of the mountains of… …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

  • Assyria — /euh sear ee euh/, n. an ancient empire in SW Asia: greatest extent from ab. 750 to 612 B.C. Cap.: Nineveh. * * * Ancient empire, southwestern Asia. It grew from a small region around Ashur (in northern Iraq) to encompass an area stretching from… …   Universalium

  • Assyria —    The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia,… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Assyria —    Akingdom situated in northern Iraq that was renowned for its warring capabilities. Assyria benefited from the destruction of Mitanni and the Hittite Empire and expanded southward to conquer Mesopotamia and westward to Syria and Palestine,… …   Ancient Egypt

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